Array in Java & types of array with programming examples

array in java

Arrays in java:

Array in java:- Typically, an array is an assortment of comparable sort of elements which has a touching memory location.

Java array is an object which contains elements of a comparative data type. Also, The elements of an array are put away in a touching memory location. It is a data structure where we store comparable elements. We can store just a fixed arrangement of elements in a Java array.

Array in Java is index-based, the principal component of the array is put away at the 0th index, the second component is put away on first index thus on.Unlike C/C++, we can get the length of the array utilizing the length member. In C/C++, we have to utilize the sizeof operator. In Java, an array is an object of a progressively created class. Java array inherits the Object class, and implements the Serializable just as Cloneable interfaces. We can hoard primitive values or objects in an array in Java. Like C/C++, we can likewise make single dimensional or multidimensional arrays in Java.

Besides, Java gives the element of mysterious arrays which isn’t accessible in C/C++.

Arrays in Java work uniquely in contrast to they do in C/C++. Following are some significant focuses about Java arrays.

  • All arrays are dynamically allocated in java.
  • Since arrays are objects in Java, we can discover their length utilizing the object property length. This is not quite the same as C/C++ where we discover length utilizing sizeof.
  • A Java array variable can likewise be declared like different variables with [] after the data type
  • The variables in the array are ordered and each have an index starting from 0.
  • Java array can be additionally be utilized as a static field, a local variable or a method parameter.
  • The size of an array must be indicated by an int value and not long or short.
  • Each array type implements the interfaces Cloneable and

Advantage of an array in java:

  • Code Optimization: It makes the code streamlined, we can recover or sort the data effectively.
  • Random access: We can get any data situated at an index position.

Disadvantage of an array in java:

  • Size Limit: We can store just the fixed size of elements in the array. It doesn’t develop its size at runtime. To take care of this issue, a collection framework is utilized in Java which develops consequently.

Types of an array in Java

  • Single dimensional array
  • Multidimensional array

Single Dimensional Array in Java:

A single dimensional array of Java is a typical array where, the array contains consecutive elements of same type.

Syntax of declaring the variable an array in java

Datatype[] var;

Datatype []var;

Datatype var[];

An array declaration has two components: the datatype and the var. datatype declares the element type of the array. The element type decides the data type of every element that includes the array. Like an array of integers, we can likewise make an array of other primitive data types like char, float, double, and so forth or user-defined data types (objects of a class). Consequently, the element type for the array figures out what type of data the array will hold.

Instantiation of an Array in Java:

At the point when an array is declared, just a reference of array is made. To really make or offer memory to array, you make an array like this:The general type of new as it applies to single dimensional arrays shows up as follows:

Var= new datatype [size];

Here, type indicates the type of data being allocated, size determines the number of elements in the array, and var is the name of array variable that is connected to the array. That is, to utilize new to allocate an array, you should determine the type and number of elements to allocate.

Example: how to declare, instantiate initialize an array in java:

array in java

Example: how to declare, instantiate, and initialize of java array together:

array in java

Using For-each Loop for Java Array:

We can likewise print the Java array utilizing for-each loop. The Java for-each loop prints the array elements individually. It holds an array element in a variable, at that point executes the body of the loop.

The syntax structure of the for-each loop is given underneath:

For(datatype var: var_arrray)


Loop body;


Example: how to use for-each loop in java array to print data on screen:

array in java

Passing Array to a Method in Java:

Arrays can be passed to different methods simply like how you pass primitive data type’s arguments. To pass an array as an argument to a method, you simply need to pass the name of the array without square brackets. The method prototype should match to acknowledge the argument of the array type.

Method syntax:

void name_of_method(datatype[] var_array);

This implies name_of_method will acknowledge an array parameter of type int. So in the event that you have an int array named var_array, at that point you can call the above method as follows:


The above call passes the reference to the array var_array to the method ‘ name_of_method ‘. In this way, the progressions made to var_array inside the method will reflect in the calling method also.

Dissimilar to in C/C++, you need not pass the length parameter alongside array to the method as all Java arrays have a property ‘length’. In any case, it very well may be fitting to pass a few elements on the off chance that a couple of positions in the array are filled.

Example: how to pass array to a method in java:

array in java

Example: passing of an array to a method as a parameter in java:

array in java

how to find max and total in single dimensional array in java

array in java

Anonymous Array in Java:

Java underpins the component of an anonymous array, so you don’t have to declare the array while passing an array to the method.

An array in Java with no name is an anonymous array. It is an array only for making and utilizing instantly.

We can make an array without a name, such types of nameless arrays are called an anonymous array.

The fundamental motivation behind anonymous array is only for moment use (only for one-time use),

An anonymous array is passed as an argument of the method.

Syntax of integer Anonymous array in java is:

new int[]{list data};

syntax of char anonymous array in java is:

new char[] {‘a’,’b’,’c’};

syntax of String anonymous array in java is:

new String[] {“list data”,”list data”};

how to use anonymous array in java:

array in java

Returning Array from the Method:

We can likewise return an array from the method in Java.

returning array from method example1:

array in java

returning array from method example1:

array in java


The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) throws an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if length of the array in negative, equivalent to the array size or more prominent than the array size while crossing the array.

ArrayIndexOfBoundsException in java array:

array in java

Multidimensional Array in Java:

Multidimensional arrays will be arrays of arrays with every component of the array holding the reference of other array. These are otherwise called Jagged Arrays. A multidimensional array is made by attaching one bunch of square bracket ([]) per dimension.

Syntax of multidimensional array:

Datatype[][] array;

Datatype [][]array;

Datatype array[][];

Datatype []array[];

Multidimensional array instantiate in java:

Int[][] array=new int[5][5];

Multidimensional array initializes in java:










How to use a multidimensional array in java:

array in java

Cloning an Array in Java:

Since, Java array implements the Cloneable interface, we can make the clone of the Java array. In the event that we make the clone of a single-dimensional array, it makes the profound duplicate of the Java array. That is to say, it will duplicate the genuine value. However, in the event that we make the clone of a multidimensional array, it makes the shallow duplicate of the Java array which implies it duplicates the references.

How to use cloning an array in java:

array in java

How to add to matrices using multidimensional array in java:

array in java

how to create a class object for java array:

array in java

Jagged Array in java:

Jagged array is an array that has various quantities of columns elements. In java, a jagged array intends to have a multi-dimensional array with lopsided size of columns in it.

Initialization of Jagged Array:

Jagged array initialization is diverse minimal unique. We need to set columns size for each row freely.

Datatype[][] array= new int[2][];

array[0]=new int[5];

array[1] = new int[6];

how to use jagged array in java:

array in java

Here, we can see number of rows are 3 and columns are distinctive for each row. This kind of array is called jagged array.

Array Literal:

The null literal used to speak to the nonattendance of an object can likewise be utilized to speak to the non-appearance of an array. For instance:

String[] var = null;

Notwithstanding the null literal, Java additionally characterizes an exceptional syntax that permits you to indicate array values literally in your programs. This syntax can be utilized just while declaring a variable of array type. It consolidates the formation of the array object with the initialization of the array elements:

String[] alph = {“a”, “b”, “c”,“d”, “e”, “f”, “g”};

This makes an array that contains the seven string component speaking to alph inside the curly braces. Note that we don’t utilize the new keyword or indicate the type of the array in this array literal syntax. The type is implicit in the variable declaration of which the initializer is a section. Additionally, the array length isn’t indicated explicitly with this syntax; it is resolved implicitly by checking the quantity of elements recorded between the curly braces.

How about we see demo java program to comprehend this idea better. This program will assist with comprehension introducing and getting to explicit array elements.

how to use Array Literal in java:

array in java

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