DBA (Database Administrator)- in this article you will learn about Database Administrator (dba). You will also learn what is the function of DBA.
DBA (Database Administrator):
DBA (Database Administrator) is an important person in the development of any information systems. He is responsible for the design, operation, and management of databases. He must be technically competent, a good manager and a skilled diplomat. He should have good communication skills. Managerial skills are important in planning, coordinating and carrying out different tasks technical skills are required to understand the complex hardware and software issues. Diplomatic skills are important in communicating with users, determining their needs and negotiating agreements etc.
Functions of DBA (Database Administrator):
The main responsibilities of DBA (Database Administrator) are as follows:
Preliminary Database Planning:
DBA (Database Administrator) may participate in preliminary database planning if appointed early.
Identifying User Requirements:
DBA (Database Administrator) identifies the current user environment. He closely studies the current system and its outputs. He also interviews different users to know their current and future requirements.
Developing & Maintaining Data Dictionary:
Data dictionary is a very useful collection of data about database. The DBA (Database Administrator) stores data item names, source, meanings and usage in data dictionary. The data dictionary is revised regularly to update it as the project continues.
Designing Logical Model:
After analyzing the user environment, the Database Administrator develops a logical data model for the organization. This data model consists of all entities, attributes and relationships.
Choosing a DBMS(Database Management System):
The DBA (Database Administrator) chooses a particular database management system on the basis of the logical data model. The selected DBMS should satisfy all requirements and constraints identified in the logical data model.
Developing Physical Model:
The DBA (Database Administrator) creates the exact layout of data according the facilities of selected of DBMS and available resource of software and hardware.
Creating & loading Database:
After developing physical model, the DBA creates the structure of database by using DBMS. He also loads the data into database.
Developing User Views:
Any project is basically developed to serve the user. DBA (Database Administrator) should guide the user about the functionality of database. If any request of the user is not satisfied, DBA should justify it.
Writing & Maintaining Documentation:
The documentation is very important when the project is reviewed or revised, it is normally maintained by data dictionary system of DBMS. The DBA should ensure the proper documentation of the project.
Developing & Enforcing Data Standard:
Data is a database that must be inserted according to the standard required by the organization. DBA (Database Administrator) ensure that the inserted data is always according to these standards. The user interface should guide the user to insert proper data. For example, the text fields may contain default values that make it easy for the user to judge the type of data to be inserted, integrity means that database must always satisfy the rules that apply to the real world. For example, if any employees can only work in one department, the database should not allow an employee to be registered in two departments. Consistency means that two different pieces of data cannot contradict each other. For example, if the date of birth of an employee is 7/8/78 at one place and it is 13/12/80 at another place then the database is inconsistent. DBA must ensure that such a situation never occurs.
Developing Operating Procedures:
DBA should establish procedures for different operations. The procedures include security and authorization, recording hardware and software failures, taking performance measurements, shutting down database property, restarting, and recovering after failure.
Training the Users:
DBA should train end-users application programmers and other users so that they may use the database effectively.
Helping Database Users:
The DBA helps the database users by:
- making sure that the data they require is available
- assisting them in using correctly the system.
- Defining Backup and Recovery Procedures:
If any portion of the database is damaged by human error or by hardware, it should be restored as soon as possible. It important to backup the information of the database on a backup server so that it may be recovered in case of an emergency.
The DBA (Database Administrator) should constantly monitor the performance of the database. He should respond to complaints or suggestions from the users. The DBA should make sure the database should always work in its optimum performance. If there is any problem in the functioning of the database, DBA should solve the problem by taking the appropriate measures.
Tuning & Reorganizing:
If the performance of the database is disturbed due to the huge amount of data, the DBA should tune it. He should add or change the indexes. In some cases, the DBA may have to change the physical model and reload the database.